On 1 January 1946, the Rijks Luchtvaart School Holland, the Dutch
Government Flight Training School, was founded. Gilze-Rijen was selected
as its operational base. In March 1946, delivery started of the DH-82A
Tiger Moth, acquired by the Netherlands Government from R.A.F. supplies
and in April 1946, the R.L.S. begun its flying operations with the
DH-82a aeroplanes. As on 10 January 1946, the former Commando Luchtvaart
Opleidingen of the military LSK also choose for Gilze-Rijen as an
operational base for their air training Gilze-Rijen became too busy.
Therefore the aircraft of the RLS were diverted to and based at several
airfields in the Netherlands. On 3 October 1951, the Dutch government
decided that the RLS had to move out of Gilze-Rijen to Eelde airfield
near Groningen. On 16 August 1954, the R.L.S. fleet was finally flown to
its new base. The Rijksluchtvaartschool operated in the period 1946-1969
a total of 15 Beechcraft D-18S aeroplanes.
Beech D-18S PH-UDU was
registered by the Rijksluchtvaartdienst, holder RLS, on 12 December
1948. On 24 October 1969, the registration PH-UDU was cancelled after
the aircraft was being withdrawn from service with the
Rijksluchtvaartschool. Four ex RLS Beech D-18S, including the PH-UDU,
were sold to Dutch Air Sprayers on
behalf of Agrarflug GmbH, Worms, Germany / International Ag-Cat Distributors Inc., Arlington (VA), USA.
The four Beech D-18S aircraft (PH-UDH, PH-UDS, PH-UDU and PH-UES) were
parked in front of the German hangar at Groningen-Eelde awaiting resale.
The PH-UDU was re-registered N9473 and departed to Worms in Germany on
21 March 1970. After the aircraft was scrapped, registration N9473 was
cancelled on 10 October 1994.
The Beechcraft D-18S is a low-wing, all-metal, twin-engine monoplane, with seating for eight passengers and MTOW of 3.970 kg.
In 1936, Beech Aircraft Corporation started the development of the Beech Model 18 or Twin Beech as a low-wing, all-metal,
twin-engine monoplane, originally intended as a six-to-eight passenger executive or feeder airline. The design was mainly
conventional for the time, including twin radial engines, all-metal semi-monocoque construction with fabric covered control
surfaces and taildragger undercarriage, while less common were the twin tail fins. The prototype Beech 18 (NX15810) was flown
first at Beech Field, Wichita, Kansas, on 15 January 1937, the same year followed by the first production Beech 18A (NC18578)
and Beech 18B (NC18583)). Type certificate for the Beech 18B was issued on 29 October 1937 and customer deliveries started the
same year. Pre-war civil construction of the Model 18 were the 18A with two 350 hp Wright R-760E's and the 18B powered by two
330 hp Jacobs L-6's. The 450 hp Pratt & Whitney R-985's became the definitive engine from the pre-war C18's onwards.
During World War II, a total of 5.204 airframes were built for the Allied air forces under various designations,
the most numerous model being the C-45 utility transport called Expeditor in the R.A.F. and R.C.A.F. After VJ-day, many war-plus
C-45's were sold to civil customers and post-war civil production was resumed after WWII with the commercial Model D18S.
In October 1945, the prototype D18S (c/n A-1; NX44592) was first flown at Beech field, Wichita, and CAA Approved Type Certificate
was issued on 5 December 1945. The Model D18 was basically similar to the wartime C-45, and 1.035 of
the D-18S have been manufactured. The first major modernisation of the Beech 18 design came with the Model E18 Super 18, which flew
first on 10 December 1953 and supplanted the D18 in production early 1954. The standards of internal comfort and
operational efficiency were progressively raised in the succeeding Super Model G18, which entered prduction in 1959.
In 1962, the Super H18 with optional tricycle undercarriage was introduced and replaced the G18 in production.
The last Beech 18 manufactured was the trigear H18 c/n BA-765, which was tested as N2091A in October 1969. Next
to the military aircraft, the Beech 18 was sold worldwide as a civilian executive, utility, cargo aircraft, and
passenger airliner on tailwheels, nosewheels, skis or floats. After its introduction in 1937, production of the
Beech 18 continued for an impressive thirty-two years, with more than 9.000 aircraft built in more than thirthy
progressively refined versions:
- Model 18A — First production model with seating for two pilots and seven or eight passengers, fitted with Wright R-760E-2 engines of 350 hp MTOW: 3.000 kg.
- Model S18A — Version of Model 18A capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats; MTOW: 3.300 kg.
- Model 18B — Improved model with increased range and useful load, fitted with 285 hp Jacobs L-5 engines.
- Model S18B — Version of Model 18B capable of being fitted with skis or floats.
- Model 18D — Variant with seating for two pilots and nine passengers, fitted with 330 hp Jacobs L-6 engines. MTOW: 3.300 kg.
- Model S18D — Version of Model 18D capable of being fitted with skis or Edo 55-7170 floats; MTOW: 3.250 kg.
- Model A18D — Variant of 18D with MTOW increased to 3.400 kg, fitted with Jacobs L-6 engines.
- Model SA18D — Seaplane version of Model A18D but same MTOW as S18D, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats.
- Model A18A — Version fitted with Wright 350 hp R-760 engines. MTOW: 3.400 kg.
- Model SA18A — Seaplane version of Model A18A, fitted with Edo 55-7170 floats; MTOW: 3.250 kg.
- Model 18R — Model with 420 hp Wright R-975 engines; seven built, one to Sweden as an air ambulance, six to Nationalist China as M18R light bombers.
- Model 18S — Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF C-45C.
- Model B18S — Nine-passenger pre-World War II civil variant, served as basis for USAAF F-2.
- Model C18S — Variant of B18S with seating for eight passengers, and equipment and minor structural changes.
- Model D18S — First post-WW II variant approved on 5 December 1945, with seating for eight passengers and MTOW of 3.970 kg. 1.035 built (c/n A-1 to A-1035).
- Model D18S-3N — Variant of D18S delivered to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF); 100 built (c/n A-601 to A-700, re-serialed as CA-1 to CA-100).
- Model D18S-3NM — Variant of D18S delivered to the RCAF; 133 built (c/n A-702 to A-715, A-736 to A-755, A-767 to A-769, A-780, A-782, A-784, A-786, A-788, A-790 to A-800, A-851 to A-930; re-serialed as CA-102 to CA-115, CA-136 to CA-155, CA-176 to CA-194, CA-201 to CA-280).
- Model D18S-3TM — Variant of D18S delivered to the RCAF; 48 built (c/n A-701, A-716 to A-735, A-756 to A-766, A-770 to A-779, A-781, A-783, A-785, A-787, A-789 and A-931; re-serialed as CA-101, CA-116 to CA-135, CA-156 to CA-175, CA-195 to CA-200 and CA-281).
- Model D18C — Version with 525 hp Continental R9-A engines and MTOW of 4.100 kg, approved on 13 July 1947. 31 built (c/n AA-1 to AA-31).
- Model E18S — Version with redesigned wing and MTOW of 4,200 kg; approved on 19 July 1954; 403 built (c/n BA-1 to BA-402 and BA-497).
- Model E18S-9700 — Variant of E18S with MTOW of 4.400 kg; approved on 19 January 1959; 57 built (c/n BA-403 to BA-433, BA-435 to BA-460).
- Model G18S — Superseded E18S, MTOW of 4.400 kg; approved on 8 October 1959; 155 built (c/n BA-434, BA-461 to BA-496, BA-498 to BA-562, BA-564 to BA-579, BA-581 to BA-617).
- Model G18S-9150 — Variant of G18, MTOW of 4.150 kg; 1 built (c/no. BA-563).
- Model H18 — Last production version, fitted with optional tricycle undercarriage developed by Volpar and MTOW of 4.500 kg; approved on 11 July 1962; 149 built (c/n BA-580, BA-618 to BA-765), of which 109 were manufactured with tricycle undercarriage.
- C-45 — Six seat staff transport based on C18S.
- C-45A — Eight seat utility transport based on C18S. 20 built.
- RC-45A — Redesignation of all surviving F-2, F-2A and F-2B aircraft by the USAF in 1948.
- C-45B — Based on C18S but with modified internal layout, 223 ordered. Re-designated UC-45B in 1943.
- Expeditor I: — Some C-45B's were supplied to the RAF under Lend-Lease.
- C-45C — Two Model 18S aircraft impressed into the USAAF. Re-designated UC-45C in January 1943.
- C-45D — Designation given to two AT-7 aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture (USAAF s/n 42-56785 and 43-33281). Re-designated UC-45D in January 1943.
- C-45E — Designation given to two AT-7 and four AT-7B aircraft converted as passenger transports during manufacture (USAAF s/n 42-43484, 42-43486, 43-33282 to 43-33285). Re-designated UC-45E in January 1943.
- C-45F — Standardized seven-seat version based on C18S, with longer nose than preceding models; 1,137 ordered. Redesignated UC-45F.
- Expeditor II — C-45F's supplied to the RAF and Royal Navy under Lend-Lease.
- Expeditor III — C-45F's supplied to the RCAF under Lend-Lease.
- C-45G — AT-7's and AT-11s remanufactured in early 1950s for the United States Air Force (USAF) to similar standard as civil D18S with autopilot and R-985-AN-3 engines. 372 aircraft rebuilt (c/n AF-61 to AF-60, AF-157 to AF-468; USAF s/n 51-11444 to 51-11503, 51-11600 to 51-11911).
- TC-45G — Multi-engine crew trainer variant of C-45G; AT-7's and AT-11s remanufactured in early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S. 96 aircraft rebuilt (c/n AF-61 to AF-156, USAF s/n 51-11504 to 51-11599).
- C-45H — AT-7's and AT-11s remanufactured in early 1950s for the USAF to similar standard as civil D18S, with no autopilot and R-985-AN-14B engines. 432 aircraft rebuilt (c/n AF-469 to AF-900; USAF s/n 52-10539 to 52-10970).
- TC-45H — Model C-45G, TC-45G, C-45H and TC-45H were approved by the FAA on 3 March 1958. Prior to civil certification, C-45G, C-45H, TC-45G and TC-45H aircraft which have been operated by the military
services had to be modified
- RC-45J — In 1962 all surviving US Navy SNB-5P's were redesignated RC-45J.
- TC-45J — In 1962 all surviving US Navy SNB-5s were redesignated TC-45J.
- UC-45J — AT-7 Navigator navigation trainer based on C18S, with an astrodome and positions for three students. Powered by 450 hp R-985-25 engines. 577 built.
- AT-7A — Floatplane version of AT-7. Six built.
- AT-7B — Winterized AT-7. Nine built.
- AT-7C — Based on C18S with R-985-AN3 engines. 549 built.
- AT-11 Kansan — Bombing and gunnery trainer for USAAF derived from AT-7. Fuselage had small circular cabin windows, bombardier position in nose, and bomb bay; fitted with two machine guns, one in nose and one in a dorsal gun turret. 1,582 built for USAAF orders, with 24 ordered by Netherlands repossessed by USAAF and used by the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School at Jackson, Mississippi.
- AT-11A — Conversion of AT-11 as navigation trainer. 36 converted.
- CQ-3 — Conversion of UC-45F, modified to act as drone control aircraft. Re-designated as DC-45F in June 1948.
- F-2 — Photo-reconnaissance version based on B18.
- F-2A — Improved version F-2B.
- JRB-1 — Photographic aircraft for the US Navy, based on the C18S, fitted with fairing over cockpit for improved visibility. 11 built.
- JRB-2 — Light transport for the US Navy, based on the C18S. 15 built.
- JRB-3 — Photographic version, similar to C-45B, 23 built.
- JRB-4 — Utility transport version, equivalent to UC-45F, 328 built.
- JRB-6 — Fitted with 2 P&W Military R-985-AN-14B engines with one 4-1/2N and one 9N damper each.
- SNB-1 Kansas — Variant for the US Navy, similar to AT-11. 110 built.
- SNB-2 Navigator — Navigation trainer for the US Navy. Similar to AT-7. 299 built.
- SNB-2C Navigator — Variant for the US Navy, similar to AT-7C.
- SNB-2H — Ambulance conversion for the US Navy.
- SNB-2P — Photo reconnaissance trainer for the US Navy.
- SNB-3 Navigator — Variant for the US Navy, similar to AT-7C.
- SNB-3N — Night Fighter Radar Trainer APS-6 Radar in pod under nose for the US Navy.
- SNB-3Q — Electronic counter-measures trainer for the US Navy.
- SNB-5 Navigator — SNB-2's and SNB-2C's were remanufactured, and designated SNB-5 by the US Navy.
- SNB-5P — Photographic-reconnaissance trainer for the US Navy.